Bailey (around home) suffered from Laminitis (Founder)
Reg. 287 NZ Shetland Pony Breeders Soc. (Inc.), 1372 NZ Miniature Horse Assn (Inc.). Buckskin 8.3 h.h. 33.5 inch. Foaled November 16, 1997. Breeder: C. & K. Houston. By Thorpeville Allister, Dam: Cotswold Hummingbird.
Walking with Nick on May 2006. Bailey's feet are now perfect in 2015 and she walks any distance she is asked to.
Giving a neighbour's child a ride.
It all began on Thursday October 28, 2004. Both Elliot and Bailey were showing slight lameness suggesting the onset of laminitis possibly due to too much good living on rapidly growing spring grass. Neither pony was scouring.
They had only been out the back of the house a few days and I immediately moved them back to their usual area with access to their shelters. Moonshine, Bailey's first foal, a 2 year old was fine. I do like to give them a change of scenery. As there is no shelter from the south, I only let them out the back when it is fine. Working around the back garden through those fine days I was able to keep an eye on them which is how I noticed they were a little tender but still moving about freely.
As Bailey was thought to be in foal, I decided to contact a vet to see if there was anything I could do other than restrict the lush grass intake as I had done in past years and which always worked. I had heard about a product called Founderguard. The vet told me it was not suitable for pregnant mares and she suggested I used Equipalazone Powder (Arnolds) which is commonly used to alleviate laminitis, to be administered at 1/2 a sachet for three days and then every other day for another 3 times. I asked and was informed that there were no known side effects and that it was safe with pregnant mares.
The vet suggested she come out, but as the lameness was only slight I did not think this necessary. I administered the first 1/2 sachet in water using a syringe orally sometime about 11.30am. She also suggested I have her on deep sawdust. A friend informed me later that sawdust is not suitable and as I found, it packs into their feet.
Later in the afternoon Bailey was walking normally again and being delighted I rang the vet to inform her of the rapid improvement. I also asked her about the administration method and was informed that this was fine.
Bailey remained for the night in a deep sawdust yard with a shelter and was given small portions of hay, freshly cut course cocksfoot grass and lucerne chaff containing 1tsp of Dolomite powder. She had access to seaweed meal and water as they always do. Bailey was in her normal living area and she was not starved.
Friday October 29: First thing, before it was properly light, I noticed Bailey was walking normally and I administered the next 1/2 sachet in water as before and then provided her with feed. Elliot was still a little sore.
On returning, shortly afterwards from feeding the pet lambs, I noticed she was trembling or shaking and she raised her top lip frequently and was what I later understood to be 'making faces' and suffering from 'brain fog'. She refused to eat or drink and as the day went on I became increasingly worried and again rang the vet who prescribed the drug, explaining the symptoms.
Later I again rang the vet clinic and was told that the vet to whom I had spoken was unavailable, but that another vet could ring me back. She rang back and came out straight away Strangely Bailey began eating a little and appeared more normal just before the vet was due to arrive. I had a gut feeling her condition had a connection with Equipalazone Powder and said so. The diognosis was Pyrexia and she administered 6ml Strepcin (antibiotic) and 4ml Troy B Complex combination and took 3 blood samples and advised me to reduce the dose of Equipalazone Powder to 1/4 sachet. By this time Bailey had received two half sachets already.
The mail of November 13 revealed the results of this 1st blood test of Friday October 29:
PCV 0.36%, RBC 9 x 1012/L, WBC 7 x 109/L, Glucose 5.0 mmol/L, Plasma normal, (NE), Serum normal (NE), Normal results
Saturday October 30: Bailey was still appearing to be in brain fog and I administered the Equipalazone Powder as advised. A friend suggested I try a honey sandwich to kick start her but it was Elliot who ended up enjoying that treat.
(He put on weight during Bailey's illness.) Bailey refused to eat anything and I gave her via the same method a tsp. honey in water and later dolomite in water. She began eating later in the day and appeared to be brighter. I spoke with the vet who had visited and she said to discontinue the Equipalazone Powder.
Sunday October 31: Again Bailey would not eat at all in the morning but picked up a little later in the day and this pattern was to continue for some days. The vet who had visited at this stage, advised me that the Blood tests appeared normal. (red, white cells, counts etc. The lipids were within the range.) I told her I had viewed information about Equipalazone Powder on the internet. Datasheet Version 4564 on the web at Bomac New Zealand.
I found that Phenylbutazone is not tolerated as well in the pony as in the horse and treatment should be discontinued if inappetence, gastrointestinal irritation, oedema or oral ulceration should occur.
Monday: November 1: I searched about Equipalazone Powder again on the internet and a site gave more alarming information, but unfortunately the link no longer works in July 2019:
“Both phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone cross the placenta and are excreted into milk. ...Cautious use in both foals and ponies is recommended because of increased incidences of hypoproteinemia and GIulceration... Phenylbutazone should therefore be used in pregnancy only when the potential benefits of therapy outweigh the risks associated with it. Adverse Effects/Warnings -... Therapy should be halted at first signs of any toxic reactions ( e.g., anorexia, oral lesions, depression, ....”
I later found this web site: HYPERLIPEMIA plus BUTE vs BANAMINE use in Minis By Dr. Pam Ripperda D.V.M. “Bute is incredibly toxic to minis, and for some reason a lot of vets out there don't realize this. Not only is there a very narrow safety margin,....”
Elliot was by this time free of the foot soreness and not showing any of the symptoms Bailey was and neither was Bailey's 2 year old daughter. Moonshine was to have gone up to my friend's to be shown at Christchurch but we did no want to add to Bailey's stress so gave it a miss.
I noticed Bailey trying to drink but ducking her head half way under and bunting at the water. She was still suffering from inappetence and brain fog. I let her out into the paddock and she began sitting down frequently with her front feet out in front and knees up, which I read was a sign of pain and renal problems.
I had noticed she passed whiteish droppings at much the same time (midday to mid afternoon) 2 days running. (THE COLOUR OF WHITE CHOCOLATE) Surely an indication of gastrointestinal tract trouble. Later in the day the vet who prescribed Equipalazone owder was back on duty, came out and immediately gave her two drips, one for Insulin and one for glucose plus. I am sure had this not been done Bailey would have died that night. I again mentioned that her condition struck me as a reaction to Equipalazone, but this was dismissed.
Blood samples were taken and her blood separated out and had a lot of fat in it. The vet said Bailey had Hyperlipaemia, but I feel that this was caused by her not eating after the administration of Equipalazone Powder. I stated a number of times that she stopped eating after the Equipalazone Powder was administered and that she was not starved or stressed prior to that. Her condition, I feel, was caused by an adverse reaction to Equipalazone Powder.
Things did not look good and there was no immediate improvement. The honey syringed down her throat had saved her life over the weekend.
From then and until the following Friday, I administered insulin injections twice a day and set amounts of glucose syringed down her throat. I was still giving her honey or molasses with dolomite also. The idea was to get rid of the fat which was now a big problem in the liver. I sat with her until I felt she was comfortably sitting quietly in her shed and dozing off.
At 3.00am she was up and I could see her eating in her yard. She had been eating a little Prairie grass (Bromus unioloides) and Sow Thistle, or Milk thistle and known by the Maori as Puha, Puwha or Rauriki. (Sonchus oleraeus or Sonchus Kirkii - good source of iron, calcuim, fibre and vitamin A.) I had read thistles were good for the liver. It grows well at this time of year but I was soon using up our own supply. Our neighbours discovered they had lots and said to help ourselves. Fortunately for Bailey, it was a very good year for Sow Thistles.
Lucerne, apples and many other plants were placed for her to eat but she would only take a mouthful, if at all, at this point. I spent hours trying out things to get her to eat. She ate a few Raspberry leaves one time and then refused later. However, as the days followed she began to eat a little more sow thistle and prairie grass while I was with her, but when I returned I would find she had left the rest. I was very pleased when she ate the lucerne chaff and an apple in her feed bowl.
Elliot and Moonshine did very well from all the leftovers. Bailey began grazing short grass in the paddock, but this was rather rich. Carrots were also acceptable and being out of season were frightfully expensive, but after I had bought her 4 bags she went off them.
Do check out the link to this excellent article about the dangers of grazing short grass in spring: Spring Grasses and Problems for Horses Dr. Jim Brendemuehl - May 5, 2005 Each day she became just a little brighter and ate a little more, but the laminitis got worse. It was necessary to keep feeding her to save her liver so we just had to ignore her sore feet.
Monday November 8: After reading many articles on the internet about liver failure in horses and laminitis or founder, I decided to increase the fibre content in her diet.
The previous evening on Sunday night, I included bran with her lucerne to try to flush out the toxins. Her stomach was very active this morning and she did not seem so bright which was worrying. I realised later the bran would have irritated her damaged gastrointestinal tract, but her discomfort passed and as the day wore on she ate more of what was offered.
Tuesday November 9: I found her lying down in her house and on standing she shivered in the morning fog. I massaged and then covered her. (She had been covered at night since becoming ill but as the nights were warmer I had left it off). She picked at some tasty portions of grass I offered with no gusto. She had only picked at her previous evening's feed of lucerne and a little oaten chaff, chopped carrots and 1 tsp of dolomite and seaweed meal so I added it to Elliot and Moonshine's morning feed. I then washed her bowl and offered her straight lucerne which she seemed to like better and ate most of it over the morning. She was still very slow to eat in the mornings and needed lots of encouragement.
Searching again on the internet for papers and articles on both liver disease and Laminitis, (What would we do without the internet now) I found the need to feed a yeast product after antibiotics or a stomach disturbance and dried, soaked sugar Beet is good for laminitis. I normally fed soaked sugar beet pellets to them in the winter but missed this year owing to the plentiful supply of grass from our neighbours.
Dropping the daily small feed of soaked pellets and lucerne chaff with the tsp of dolomite and seaweed meal now seems a mistake as they did not receive the same amount of minerals in their diet over the latter half of the winter. Shetlands may need more minerals than other breeds. After all the Shetland Islands continually have salt/mineral laden winds blowing in from the sea.
In the morning I asked the vet who had prescribed the Equipalazone Powder, on the feeding of a yeast product to help Bailey's digestion. She suggested Bio Start and I immediately bought some and gave Bailey 10ml. She should have suggested that, not me.
I also bought Speedy Beet to help increase the fibre content of her diet. Only gave her a tiny amount as I knew that if I gave her much she would not look at it. I mixed it with a tiny amount of oaten chaff and she ate most of it straight away.
I can't believe it. This morning I was again thinking she wasn't going to make it and now she is much improved. Late this afternoon I gardened along a strip right next to Bailey's area which had a few Dandelions and I knew the roots were good for the liver. I washed the whole plants in a bucket of water as I dug them out and she ate them. She also ate whole washed thistles of various types. Elliot and Moonshine, in the adjoining area, started snorting around at activity on the roadside and Bailey took interest and began to walk briskly. I hadn't seen that in 10 days. She grazed the very short grass in her area and also I noticed she seemed freer in her walk and was not lying down all the time. Was it the Bio Start? It is the only possible thing I can think of which might have made so rapid a change in her outlook and walking.
A friend rang asking about Bailey. She had rung before after hearing from another friend about Bailey and one of her ponies had experienced the same reaction as Bailey did after receiving Equipalazone Powder. She now used natural remedies more and told me about a new method of trimming feet.
Bailey had a big lie down stretched out over the dinner hour but I could see she was comfortable. Later she grazed and even began eating hay which she had not looked at for a week. I left her with a mixture of 'Speedi beet', oaten chaff and lucerne.
Wednesday November 10: When I looked out at 6.00am Bailey was on her feet out grazing. She hadn't eaten her night feed but looked bright. Incorporated her leftovers into Elliot and Moonshine's morning feed and after washing out her bowl just put a little oaten and lucerne chaff in it. She ate some and then wandered off to pick at the short grass.
I have been reading up on the sugar content of grasses and find that the grass known as Prairie (Bromus unioloides), is among those which tend to have a lower sugar content as has Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata). Bailey would only eat the Prairie grass, but is now eating Cocksfoot well, so I cut her a little and she ate with relish. She is also eating carrots again. Mind you they have to be peeled and cut into small pieces. Sow Thistles are given night and morning. Just as well they are plentiful and lush at this time of year.
Thursday November 11: Bailey has eaten her oaten and lucerne chaff through the night and there is no sign of brain fog. She has not touched her hay. I give her 5mls of Bio-Start, offer soaked beet pulp which she refuses and as she is shivering in spite of having a warm cover, I cut some course cocksfoot which she eats with gusto. I worry about the sugar content, though I read that it is lower on dull days and higher on sunny. I wish the drizzle would go and the sun rise to warm her.
Last evening I spoke with a Shetland breeder who had experience with Hyperlipaemia and she said once they began eating they did not go off and on as Bailey did and in a time sequence.
Bailey refused to eat in the mornings, but would begin to eat later in the day though by the time Monday November 1st came, she was at her worst and refused to eat at all. Bailey showed a brain altered state the morning after Equipalazone was administered.
The 1st vet to visit, though more experienced with cattle rather than equine practice, recognised renal problems as she said the mouth twitching was a sign of this. She also discussed other possibilities with us which might have affected Bailey's brain and asked if Bailey had been wormed. I have not used a wormer for years.
Friday November 12: A much brighter Bailey this morning. She has eaten her night feed and got up straight away for her Sow thistles and freshly cut Prairie grass. No shaking. She was keenly into a fresh bowl of lucerne and oaten chaff. I removed her cover and after giving her, what had become the ritual morning massage, I picked up the droppings which had now increased to nearly a bucket a day by last night and appear normal. After feeding Elliot, Moonshine and the pet lambs I was free to enjoy a coffee. The day went well. Bailey ate all that was put in front of her.
Saturday November 13: No shivering first thing and as it is a warm early morning I remove her cover and give the now ritual Bio-Start. Bailey greedily tucks into her lucerne and oaten chaff mix with a little Speedy Beet. I am very gradually increasing the amount I add. Elliot and Moonshine have no problems with it and clean up their bowls of Lucerne chaff and Speedy Beet.
The mail revealed normal results of the 1st blood test of Friday October 29 and taken by the 1st vet to visit. (See date October 29)
Friends gave up their time to drive down from just south of Christchurch to visit today. What an uplift and a difference this has made to us all and Craig gave Bailey's feet a non invasive trim using the Natural Hoof Method. The Natural Hoof Web site.
Not long after, she was enjoying a run with Elliot and Moonshine and even managed to trot. There is no lasting damage to her feet and she is not foundered.
Catherine charmed Elliot who never lets strangers near him. He was fairly smitten with her horse talk.
Sunday November 14: Bailey ate all her breakfast, was up and about and hardly lame at all first thing. Later we went for a walk over the road and down the lane. She walked the shingle drive no bother and is almost back to normal.
Tuesday November 16: Last evening, a humdinger thunderstorm gave us 20mm and Bailey was shivering with cold before I managed to get a cover on her. The others were not cold. I had them grazing down around the hill for a short time and brought them back. Elliot, being used to a shed from a weanling, went in, but not before he and everyone was wet. Bailey needed me to go with her and I had to stand with her otherwise she just walked out. They didn't like the noise of hail on the roof. We put towels and a heavy woolen blanket under her cover to dry her off and I gave her a good feed of lucerne and oaten chaff which warmed her up. It just goes to show that she is not yet properly able to produce enough heat to keep warm. She was good this morning. This evening I am told that with Hyperlipaemia the dung is always very dark, almost black. At no time did Bailey have this sign of Hyperlipaemia.
Sunday December 5: Though uncovered now, Bailey was not shivering this morning after a very wet night and it is still raining steadily. She ate her morning feed and they are all staying inside their shelter. Has been a bit tender on her feet for the past few days which is not surprising, as the nor-wester would have raised the sugar content in the grass.
Thursday December 9: Trimmed all 3 ponies feet last Monday and this morning gave Bailey another session. Her feet are looking great and I have a lot more confidence about using the knife and cutting into areas I would never have done before Craig came down. Yesterday I visited friends and helped them trim a donkey I bred called Rosalie.
Wednesday December 22: This morning I took Bailey for a good walk up the hill. She was keen and we hope to have the time to do this daily. This evening she is quite happy and I took a photo of her resting a back foot. Big improvement all round today.
Wednesday December 24: We managed two days of the walk up the hill in the morning and then Bailey began to show slightly sore feet. I trimmed her feet again. Not off her feed, I began watching what she ate and cut down on the lucerne.
Thursday January 4: Bailey suddenly went very lame on her off right foreleg and would not put any weight on it. Her other legs all seem fine. I had cut her lucerne down to a handful a day and the soaked beet and a little chaff to twice a day. She refused to walk today and only stood up when hassled. I bought arnica which even some vets now use for pain relief. A friend uses it for laminitic ponies and said 10 drops a day which I gave in water syringed down Bailey's throat.
Thursday January 5: Got up and Fed her sow thistles, Prairie grass and left hay with her at night. She is eating most of what I give her. Gave arnica first thing but she only ate half her morning feed. Managed to get her on her feet and she grazed a short time and then laid down again. I soaked and bandaged her foot to soften the tissues and this seemed to help her move about. Looked up lots of information on abscesses which can follow a month or so after laminitis.
Thursday January 6: Not keen to get up, we used Elliot to hassel her onto her feet. I have been giving her a little sow thistle before her morning feeds and at times throughout the past days, as I am sure it helps the liver and she will need all the help she can get. Soaked and bandaged her foot and used a plastic bag to keep the hoof wet. Left this on for twenty minutes, then removed the bag. Her foot became quite hot, but cooled when I removed the outer bag. I left the bandages on until she was lying down after grazing for a little while in the paddock.
Friday January 7: She got up when I went out with her feed this morning and ate most of it. During the time Bailey had the bag on her foot, Elliot and Moonshine were given their 20 minutes in the long grass area and Bailey hobbled in and ate for about 5 minutes before we took them all out. She is picky about her food.
Saturday January 8: Last evening she had appeared a little better and grazed out in the paddock for a while on her own accord. I made sure she was in her shelter for the night, but with the gate open so that she could go out into the paddock but it does not appear she had. This morning the weather is cold and raining and I notice twitching of the mouth - 'making a face', once she ate little of her beet mix but was very keen on sow thistle, prairie grass, timothy and also ate straight lucerne and oaten chaff.
I drenched her with 1tsp of dolomite. She had not eaten her meadow hay and did not show any interest in a new slab this morning.
We covered her and let all three into the long grass area where Bailey stayed about 10 minutes before heading back to the short grass of her yard. The others made the most of the 20 minutes they were allowed.
At 8.48am they were all back in their shelters and yards, but Bailey is on one side with half the shelter and Elliot and Moonshine share the other half. There is only a couple of rails between them and they all have access to larger short grassed yards.
At 10.15 I cut her sow thistle and prairie grass and she ate it quickly. I then gave her 1tsp. of seaweed meal in the juice of 1 lemon and she picks at hay.
She was shivering though she felt warm behind her ears and warmer under her cover. I read that lemon juice, apple cider vinegar and sow thistle are all great for the liver.
Her foot was so sore but, if it was an abscess as it appeared to be, according to possibilities, it could take some time to find a way out and it would be sterile so there would be no outside infection. Apparently, I would do more harm than good having a vet poke around as it is very hard to find the right spot to make a hole and then you open up the foot to other infections.
I am worried as to how she is going to carry on with the stress of having to walk painfully on three legs while in foal.
Sunday January 9: I fed her through the night at 10pm, 12.30am and 3.30am, two carrots (she refuses tops) and a small bundle of prairie grass and the next morning she was not making any faces. She ate her 1/2 beet lucerne mix first thing. Refused sow thistle. Gave her 2tsp. apple cider vinegar. Refused oaten chaff a little later, but eats freshly cut grass and a little carrot. Not eating hay. It was horribly wet and I dug drains to take water away.
Bailey's foot was no better and I did not make her move out of her shelter.
We go through the same regime of hand feeding her during the day and Bailey picked at her hay. I gave her the juice of a lemon as I did yesterday. Spoke with a friend who also said to soak the foot with Epsom salts.
I found a new vet and spoke with her. Sounds as though the abscess is the likely cause of her lameness and she advised me to continue with the soaking in Epsom salts twice a day and if it has not broken out by Tuesday to give her a call.
Later I notice a red area and a couple of broken skin points at her heel. Bailey only stood for 15 minutes of soaking before hobbling out into the paddock to graze herself. She hated soaking at this point. We felt she was looking brighter, though just as lame.
Monday January 10: A repeat of yesterday but a developing situation in the heel region.
The swelling at the heel area is larger and black and red areas extend along the coronet line under hair.
Tuesday January 11: Was mostly a repeat of yesterday, except that the heel area does not seem so enlarged. I encouraged her to go out in the clean grassy paddock for the day. Her yard is wet and stinks. She could not tolerate the Epsom Salts so I used Apple Cider Vinegar and 2 crushed garlic cloves in the water when I bathed her sore hoof for the second soaking. She does not like her hoof in water any longer than five minutes now.
Bought Animalintex as I was intending to apply this but have not as yet. Also bought NRM Coolade as another feed option. Gave her a handful and she liked it. She also ate straight oaten chaff again so is back on that. Bailey walked on a lead rope back to her shelter for the night on three legs but did use the toe of her sore foot a little. We didn't have to hassle her to move which is an improvement. She is happy to be back lying on her left over hay and with cut grass and fresh hay at her nose.
Photo is of Bailey toe walking with animalintex applied.
Thursday January 13: Same as the last few days and eating well.
Saturday January 15: Left bandage on until new vet called out to see Bailey on Friday morning. When bandage was removed the abscess had burst and thick pus was evident. The vet said it is usually watery. I am to poultice her foot at night only until Bailey is walking soundly and get in touch again if I need to. Blood tests were carried out for her liver and kidneys. Blood tests revealed that Bailey has no lasting damage to her kidneys or liver though her liver is still not 100%. She has every chance of making a full recovery. The vet did not think Bailey looked in foal but if she was her unborn foal may have mummified in which case she will spit it out. Read data above on November 1, where it states phenylbutazone crosses the placenta. If Bailey had such an adverse reaction would it be surprising if it had killed her foal?
Friday January 21: A separation at the heel which appears to be growing again from the top. Bailey is putting weight on the sore foot when she walks, but it is sore and still feels hot. We are now giving the ponies access to long grass for an hour twice a day, 7am and 7pm. This is because the sugar content of grass rises during the day. Bailey is eating well.
June 2005: Bailey suffered another bout of laminitis during the autumn. We went through a terrible time when I didn't know what to feed her. Grass became a difficult one and I've decided only very little is OK unless we have drought.
July 2005: In her very full winter coat (New Zealand), with her front feet soaking.
Thursday February 10: Bailey is now fully recovered and with the others. She lost weight during the foot abscess trouble and the time has passed when she could possibility have produced a foal. As the new vet said we would have known if she had aborted it. The dung was collected from the paddock and we have kept a close watch on her. Her coat is now beginning to shine again.
the autumn her front feet had flared badly but shortening back the toes and heels made a huge difference to her. Bailey was walking on her heels and clearly her feet were now misshapen, so I cut back the toe to the white line in her front feet as shown in these photos and every day worked a little on her feet. The photos show her off side front hoof which was the worst.
Off front sole
Mark on hoof
Bailey's feet, May 2007. The year is now 2016 and Bailey is still a very active little pony with no incidence of laminitis or founder since those awful days. We monitor her food intake and the two donkeys and two Shetland ponies always have their hay in small holed hay nets. They have varying times out on pasture each day depending on the grass growth and our estimate on how safe the sugar content is.
I'm pleased to say she has been galloping around the paddock lately and you can see she is just loving life.
Shetland ponies have lived for thousands of years in the Shetland Islands where the climate is too harsh for trees to grow and grass must be accordingly different from what is grown in New Zealand. The ponies are known to graze seaweed to survive severe winters.
Small ponies are prone to founder here, especially in the springtime and autumn. Scientists have bred grasses for fattening cattle and sheep grazing on fertilized lands. This is not ideal for a small pony from the Shetland Islands whose main object in life is eating.
Since Bailey's illness I have been experimenting, strictly monitoring their diets and they are all much more active since losing weight. Bailey in particular, gallops around just for the joy of it. Low sugar grasses such as Prairie grass, (Bromus unioloides often seen growing on waste land, has flat seed heads and is bright green). I keep clumps but, if you cut them too often, they will die. Once a year is enough. Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) is another good grass for fibre. Sow Thistle, or Milk thistle (known by the Maori as Puha, Puwha or Rauriki. (Sonchus oleraeus or Sonchus Kirkii) is a good source of iron, calcuim, fibre and vitamin A.
We made a very restricted area but with with hill for exercise and a shelter. At the moment an electric fence is used. Breakfast is now grazing before the sun raises the sugar level in the grass. They are timed according to the time of year and the grass growth. They only have twenty minutes at times while in winter or during drought may be out umtil lunch time. Later in the day they are given a little hay and more in a Greedy Steed small holed hay net at night. Breakfast consists of one cup of oaten chaff and one handful of lucerne chaff plus 1tsp. each of Seaweed meal and Dolomite while Bailey and the Donkeys have 1/3 tsp of a mineral mix called Fortevite Extra.
HYPERLIPEMIA plus BUTE vs BANAMINE use in Minis By Dr. Pam Ripperda D.V.M. “Bute is incredibly toxic to minis, and for some reason a lot of vets out there don't realize this. Not only is there a very narrow safety margin,....”
Update at November, 2013: Bailey has kept well ever since, but I am very careful about her diet, especially when there is any fresh grass growth. She is lively and skittish and you would never know by looking at her that she was once so badly foundered. I keep her feet trimmed and they look great.